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What Is 123 Agreement Between India And Us

When details of serious inconsistencies were revealed between what was said in the Indian Parliament about the agreement and the facts about the agreement submitted by the Bush administration to the U.S. Congress, India increasingly opposed the agreement. In particular, parts of the agreement that are related to the guarantee of a fuel supply from India or the possibility for India, Prime Minister Manmohan Singh`s statement to Parliament is in complete contradiction with the Bush administration`s communication to the House Foreign Affairs Committee that India would not be allowed to store such nuclear fuel reserves in order to undermine US leverage. To bring this point home, it is said that Agreement 123 is not at odds with the provision of the Hyde Act – the little-known “Barack Obama Amendment” – that the supply of nuclear fuel should be “reasonable in terms of operation”. The “strategic reserve,” crucial to India`s nuclear program, is therefore a non-launcher. [75] Section 123 of the U.S. Atomic Energy Act generally requires a peaceful nuclear cooperation agreement for the significant transfer of nuclear materials, equipment or components from the United States to another nation. In addition, these agreements, commonly referred to as “Agreements 123,” facilitate cooperation in other areas such as technical exchanges, scientific research and security discussions. In conjunction with other non-proliferation instruments, in particular the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), 123 agreements help advance the principles of non-proliferation in the United States. They create a legal framework for important cooperation with other countries. In order for a country to reach a 123-nation agreement with the United States, that country must meet the non-proliferation standards set out in the 123 agreement. The U.S. State Department is responsible for negotiating 123 agreements, with technical assistance and approval from DOE/NNSA and in consultation with the U.S.

Nuclear Regulatory Commission. On 3 August 2007, the two countries published the full text of Agreement 123. [64] Nicholas Burns, the chief negotiator of the Indian-U.S. nuclear agreement, said that the United States had the right to denounce the agreement if India tested a nuclear weapon and that no part of the agreement recognized India as a nuclear-weapon state (contrary to the Non-Proliferation Treaty). [65] On 18 July 2005, the United States and India announced the launch of the Civil Nuclear Cooperation Initiative. As part of this initiative, India will commit all of its civilian nuclear facilities to take IAEA security measures. On 1 August 2008, the IAEA Board of Governors approved India`s protection agreements, paving the way for India to reflect on the Nuclear Suppliers Group. Currently, the United States is seeking a waiver from the Nuclear Suppliers Group to allow trade with India`s expanding pacific nuclear sector. The accompanying peaceful nuclear cooperation agreement will allow U.S. and Indian companies to cooperate to stimulate growth in India`s civilian nuclear sector, create a clean energy source that will benefit the environment and strengthen India`s energy security, with stable energy sources for its large, growing economy. The agreement, strongly supported by the White House, is seen as a major victory for George W. Bush`s foreign policy initiative and has been described by many lawmakers as the cornerstone of the new strategic partnership between the two countries.

[63] 3. The administrative agreement established under this article may be amended in agreement with the competent authorities of the contracting parties.

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